John Forbes Nash, Jr. (born June 13, 1928) is an American
mathematician who works in game theory and differential geometry. He shared the
1994 Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (also called the Nobel Prize in
Economics) with two other game theorists, Reinhard Selten and John Harsanyi. He
is best known in popular culture as the subject of the Hollywood movie, A
Beautiful Mind, about his mathematical genius and his struggles with the
paranoid type of schizophrenia.

Childhood

On June 13, 1928, John Forbes Nash was born in the small Appalachian city of
Bluefield, West Virginia, the son of John Nash Sr., an Aggie electrical engineer,
and Virginia Martin, a teacher. At age 12, he was carrying out scientific
experiments in his room at home. It was quite apparent at a young age that he
didn't like working with other people, preferring to do things alone. He
returned the social rejection of his classmates with intellectual superiority,
believing their dances and sports to be a distraction from his experiments and
studies. Martha, his sister, seems to have been a remarkably normal child, while
Johnny seemed different from other children. She wrote later in life, "Johnny
was always different. [My parents] knew he was different. And they knew he was
bright. He always wanted to do things his way. Mother insisted I do things for
him, that I include him in my friendships. ... but I wasn't too keen on showing
off my somewhat odd brother."

Education and early career

He attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology on a Westinghouse scholarship,
and received both his bachelor's degree and his master's degree in 1948. From
Pittsburgh he went to Princeton University, where he worked on his equilibrium
theory. He earned a Ph.D. in 1950 with a dissertation on non-cooperative games.
The thesis, which was written under the supervision of Albert W. Tucker,
contained the definition and properties of what would later be called the Nash
equilibrium. These studies led to three articles:

"Equilibrium Points in N-person Games" published in the Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences (USA) (1950);

"The Bargaining Problem" (April 1950) in Econometrica, and

"Two-person Cooperative Games" (January 1953), also in Econometrica.

John Nash also did important work in the area of algebraic geometry:

"Real algebraic manifolds", (1952) Ann. Math. 56 (1952), 405–421. (See also Proc.
Internat. Congr. Math., 1950, (AMS, 1952), pp. 516–517.)

His most famous work in pure mathematics was the Nash embedding theorem, which
showed that any abstract Riemannian manifold can be isometrically realized as a
submanifold of Euclidean space. He also made contributions to the theory of
nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations.

Marriage

At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he met Alicia Lopez-Harrison de
Lardé, a physics student from El Salvador, whom he married in February 1957.
Alicia committed Nash to a mental hospital in 1959 for paranoid schizophrenia;
their son John Charles Martin was born soon afterward but remained nameless for
a year because she felt that John should have a say in the name. John Martin
became a mathematician and, like his father, was later diagnosed with paranoid
schizophrenia. Nash had another son, John David (b. June 19, 1953), with Eleanor
Stier, but had little to do with the child or his mother.

Divorce

The couple divorced in 1963 and reunited in 1970, but in a nonromantic
relationship that resembled that of two unrelated housemates. Alicia referred to
him as her "boarder" and said they lived "like two distantly related individuals
under one roof," according to Sylvia Nasar's 1998 biography of Nash, A Beautiful
Mind. The couple renewed their relationship after Nash won the Nobel Prize in
Economics in 1994. They remarried on June 1, 2001.

Schizophrenia and recovery

Nash began to show the first signs of his mental illness in 1958. He became
paranoid and was admitted into the McLean Hospital, April-May 1959, where he was
diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and mild depression resulting in low self-esteem.
After a problematic stay in Paris and Geneva, Nash returned to Princeton in
1960. He remained in and out of mental hospitals until 1970, undergoing insulin
shock therapy and other treatments.

In campus legend, Nash became "The Phantom of Fine Hall" (Fine Hall is Princeton's
mathematics center), a shadowy figure who would scribble arcane equations on
blackboards in the middle of the night. The legend appears in a work of fiction
based on Princeton life, The Mind-Body Problem, by Rebecca Goldstein.

Encouraged by Alicia, Nash worked in a communitarian setting where his
eccentricities were unremarked. He developed an interest in calculating the
exact values of large numbers, research that impelled him to Princeton's
Information Centers where he developed computer programs. Here, he had more
contact with Princetonians, which helped Nash to cope with his mental illness.

In the late 1980s, Nash began to use electronic mail to gradually link with
working mathematicians who realized that he was "John Nash" and his new work had
value. They formed part of the nucleus of a group that contacted the Bank of
Sweden's Nobel award committee and were able to vouch for Nash's ability to
receive the award in recognition of his early work.

The 1990s brought a return of his genius, and Nash has taken care to manage the
symptoms of his mental illness. He is still hoping to score substantial
scientific results. His recent work involves ventures in advanced game theory
including partial agency which show that, as in his early career, he prefers to
select his own path and problems (though he continues to work in a communal
setting to assist in managing his illness).

Nash is still at Princeton, where he holds an appointment in mathematics. While
cautious with people he does not know, he is said to have a dry sense of humor.

Recognition

In 1978 Nash was awarded the John Von Neumann Theory Prize for his invention of
non-cooperative equilibria, now called Nash equilibria.

In 1994 he received the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of
Alfred Nobel as a result of his game theory work as a Princeton graduate
student.

Between 1945 and 1996, Nash published 23 scientific studies.

`
LIST OF NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS IN ECONOMY`

Akerlof, George A.

Allais, Maurice

Arrow, Kenneth J.

Aumann, Robert J.

Becker, Gary S.

Buchanan, James M., Jr.

Coase, Ronald H.

Debreu, Gerard

Engle, Robert F.

Fogel, Robert W.

Friedman, Milton

Frisch, Ragnar

Granger, Clive W. J.

Haavelmo, Trygve

Harsanyi, John C.

Heckman, James J.

Hayek, Friedrich August Von

Hicks, Sir John R.

Kahneman, Daniel

Kantorovich, Leonid Vitaliyevich

Klein, Lawrence R.

Koopmans, Tjalling C.

Kuznets, Simon

Kydland, Finn E.

Leontief, Wassily

Lewis, Sir Arthur

Lucas, Robert

Markowitz, Harry M.

McFadden, Daniel L.

Meade, James E.

Merton, Robert C.

Miller, Merton M.

Mirrlees, James A.

Modigliani, Franco

Mundell, Robert A.

Myrdal, Gunnar

Nash, John F.

North, Douglass C.

Ohlin, Bertil

Prescott, Edward C.

Samuelson, Paul A.

Schelling, Thomas C.

Scholes, Myron S.

Schultz, Theodore W.

Selten, Reinhard

Sen, Amartya

Sharpe, William F.

Simon, Herbert A.

Smith, Vernon L.

Solow, Robert M.

Spence, A. Michael

Stigler, George J.

Stiglitz, Joseph E.

Stone, Sir Richard

Tinbergen, Jan

Tobin, James

Vickrey, William

alfredslinks

The text is property of free encyclopedia Wikipedia. For more information please go to http://en.wikipedia.org/